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Sunday, December 11, 2011
Jabir Ibn Haiyan
Jabir Ibn Haiyan
Jabir Ibn Haiyan (750-803 AD), more familiarly called "The Geber of the Middle Ages" also known as the "Father of Chemistry". His full name of Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, has successfully positioned itself as a leading scientist since he practiced medicine and alchemy in Kufa (present Iraq) around the year 776 AD the past. In the early career of Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, he had studied at Barmaki Vizier during the Abbasid Caliphate of Harun Ar-Rasyid.Sumbangan leadership of his greatest was in the field of chemistry. He is famous for writing more than a hundred pamphlets that have been conserved to date. There were 22 of them pamphlets related to alchemy (al-Kimiya from Arabic) and chemistry.It was he who introduced the research model by means of experimental alchemy in the world. Meaning, he is generating momentum for the development of chemistry moden.Jabir many devoted himself to experimenting and developing methods to achieve progress in research. He ma-rahkan force of his ability in the process of developing the basic methods of chemistry and the study of various reaction mechanisms kimia.Jadi, he developed as branches of chemistry alkimia.Beliau stressed that the exact quantities of chemicals are connected to the existence of chemical reactions will occur.Therefore, it may be said that Jabir had laid the foundation on the rule of fixed ratio.
The most basic contribution of Jabir in the field of chemistry as well as the completion of a scientific approach, as in the process of crystallization, distillation, kalsinasi (conversion of metal to oxidants by means of combustion), pejalwap and evaporation and expansion of some of the equipment to conduct experiments itu.Pencapaian The main practice is attributed to his discovery of mineral and acid, which has already prepared the first time in research on alembik (Anbique). Its design makes the process of distillation of alembik be easier and systematic.
Among several other achievements in chemistry, one of which is in the preparation of nitric acid, hydrochloric, citric, and tartaric.Jabir emphasis in this systematic experiments is common knowledge there is no reason why they didunia.Oleh, why Jabir given the honor as "Father of Modern Chemistry" by his colleagues around the world. Even in the writings of Max Mayerhaff, mentioned that if you want to search for chronology of the development of chemistry in Europe there may be traced directly in the works of Jabir Ibn Haiyan.
In fact, Jabir was a pioneer in some field of applied chemistry.His contributions included the development of steel, the preparation of metal materials, materials antikarat, gold ink, the use of manganese dioxide ore for manufacturing glass, desiccant, clothing, and leather tanning.
His contribution is in providing anti-water coating on clothes, and a mixture of paint, and grease. In addition, he also developed techniques of smelting gold using aqua regia.Idea Jabir's experiment has now become the basis for classifying the chemical elements, especially in metals, non metals, and chemical decomposition. He discussed three distinct types of substances based on their properties:
Liquids (spirits), that which vaporize on heating, as in substance camphor (camphor), arsenic, and ammonium chloride.Metals, like gold, silver, tin, copper, iron.Compounds that can be converted into powders.In the Middle Ages, Jabir pamphlets in the field of chemistry - including his famous, Scripture and Scripture Kimya Sab'een, was translated into Latin. Even Kimya Scripture translation was published by the English called Robert Chester in the year 1444, with the title The Book of the Composition of Alchemy. The second book, Book Sab'een also translated by Gerard of Cremona. Berthelot also translated several of his books, among others known in the title Book of Kingdom, Book of the Balances, and Book of Eastern Mercury.
Next in the year 1678, one of the English, the Richard Russell Jabir translate other works with titles Sum of Perfection. Unlike previous authors, who first mentioned Richardlah Jabir with reference to Geber.
He who praised Arabic Jabir as a clergyman and philosopher.This book became very popular in Europe for several centuries and has been member! impact and large enough to influence the evolution of modern chemistry. The term alkali, first discovered by Jabir. Even so, from all his work, few of which have been translated. Most of his works remain in the Arabic language.