Saturday, December 10, 2011

Ibn Maskawaih

Ibn Maskawaih
Ibn Maskawaih whose real name is Abu Ali bin Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Yaqoub bin Maskawaih is the most important Islamic scholar. Although philosophical thinking is not much discussed, but he has produced a variety of important philosophical theory which underlies the philosophy of mind the next figures.
His view of human and community development is not only a basic thoughts to other Islamic scholars such as Ibn Khaldun and Jamal Al Rini but also Western scholars. Put forward the theory of evolution has been used as a study by Charles Darwin who later published a book Origin of Species on the incident and human origin. In the book, Charles Darwin stated that humans evolved in the evolution of the species being the most simple to the complex. Development takes place slowly and take a long time.
Results from studies and observations on various species of wildlife and fossils in several continents, he finally decided that people actually come from apes through an evolutionary process.The theory of evolution has become controversial, and opposition from the church because he was denied the role of God in making life on earth.

However, Darwin's theory has been made known and considered a pioneer of the theory of evolution used by scholars in anthropology and sociology in explaining the history and the passage of people and community development. But the theory of evolution has long been used by Ibn Maskawaih in the study of human perabadan. He said the human intellect does not overcome the intelligence possessed by apes. But people become more intelligent because of the experience they gain in life.
For Ibn Maskawaih, man is a small world and it is a picture of everything in this world. Every human has a unique role either as individuals or members of the community. His opinion is valid "theory functions" given by a French sociologist named Auguste Comte.
If every member of society out their roles and functions that society will be in a stable and united, and enable it to grow properly. While any disruption of that function will result in some conflict and unrest in society. In turn led to the collapse of the society. So, not too much that is said that Ibn Maskawaih is also the founder of the theory of functions used by social analysts who conduct research on ancient and modern society. Although he was educated in the medical field, but to his deep knowledge, has led to learn literature, philosophy, chemistry, languages, and other classical knowledge.
He got the better of each field of expertise they have learned. Ibn Maskawaih also historians and scholars a reliable character. All knowledge is not learned at once as is often done by other Islamic scholars. He learned it in stages and eventually found the field of philosophy, according to himself as a thinker. Began his career as a doctor before being appointed as secretary to several ministers as Mueiz Al Serra.

This experience gave him ample opportunities to support the community and the public.After the death Mueiz, he was appointed by the Minister Ibn Cock became head of the library. This opportunity was used to analyze the various books written by Islamic scholars and Greek. After that, he was the Chief Khazanah Trustees having charge of the Library Malik Adhdud Empire who ruled from 367-372H. With knowledge and experience available to him, Ibn Muskawaih ketokohannya has developed as a scientist who has extensive knowledge in various fields.
Many theories have been developed by him and not limited to philosophy alone. He wrote many books that discuss various issues. Among the Kitab al-al-Saghir Fauz focused discussion related to the question of metaphysics about God, the apostolic and soul. Many of his views on this matter adapted from the sight of the Greek philosophers. Effect of Greek philosophical thought of Ibn Muskawaih can be seen in view of the soul. When exposing the question, he stated that the soul is a different spirit from the body and can not be seen and touched by the senses. For her soul something that can accept two things at the same time as the black and white at a time.
He also submitted a moral theory in his book entitled al-Akhlaq Tahzib. In the book, he mentions morality is when the birth of the height of good deeds done on a regular basis. Therefore, good character will only be born of pure soul, and vice versa.

To obtain pure soul and then the children from early childhood should be exposed to good values. Negative values ​​will only interfere with the process of growth and cause them to grow without regard to decency. Children need to be trained in the early stages of growth to behave and act in accordance with these values ​​and to stick to their bosom. Ibn Maskawaih also wrote several other books such as al-Mufra al'Adwiah-I on drugs, UNS al'Farid a short story anthology, Tajarub al'Umarn a record of the history, al-Tabikh of cooking methods, al'Asyribah who talked about the drink, al'Fauz al-Kabir, and Tajrib al'Um.
Based on the book he wrote so many ketokohannya as a philosopher and the author can not be denied. Ideas and views make it clear ahead of time as one of the scientists and Islamic scholars unmatched in his time. Indeed, Ibn Maskawaih who was born in 330H (941M) in the City Rhages will continue to be remembered as a philosopher who is rich in theories.

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