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Tuesday, December 13, 2011
Ibn Khaldun's real name is Wali al-Din Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Hasan was born in Tunis in a Ramadan 732H His family came from Hadramaut Arab descent who had settled in Serville, Italy, and Spain finally moved and settled in North Africa during the reign of Abu Hafs Zakariyya, the government of Tunis at the time. As stated earlier, Ibn Khaldun was educated in various Islamic sciences as the Quran, al'Hadith, Islamic jurisprudence, literature, philosophy, language, and logic. Among his teachers was Muhammad Ibrahim al-Abili, Abu Abd Allah al-Jayyani, Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Abd al-Salam.Ibn Khaldun became a great scholar so honored by the West because of his mind, however rarely Muslims study. In fact, Ibn Khaldun's contributions to the economic lot of the work embodied in general, al Muqaddimah.Among the economic theory in his work is still relevant to current economic problems.
Ibn Khaldun has been discussed a number of economic philosophy and principles such as justice (al adl), hardworking, cooperation (cooperation), moderate (moderation), and fairness.Berhubung with justice (Justice), Ibn Khaldun stressed that justice is the backbone and base strength an economist.When justice is not possible, a country would be destroyed and he musnah.Menurut, injustice is not only understood as the seized money or property of another person without any reason that is required. In fact, take another person's property or use its energy by force or making false allegations against others. Similarly, if the requesting person to do something contrary to Islam.
He categorized the hijackers property of others illegally to affect the lives of his wife and family as the most unfair. According to him, when someone buys a property with the cheapest price fall in the category has a property that is not correct way. Such injustices have brought down on a country and the collapse of a civilization as soon as possible. According to Ibn Khaldun, the reasons were, all forms of injustice forbidden by Islam.
Human and Economic Based on in-depth analysis found that all economic theories and ideas of Ibn Khaldun of man based on the principles and philosophy of Islam. Ibn Khaldun did not see the main function of the human in animals such perekonomiannya economic activity (economic animal). Instead he regarded man as a man of Islam (Islamic man / homo Islamicus) which requires the knowledge economy to meet its mission on earth this ini.Dalam, Ibn Khaldun emphasized the need for people away from evil. Instead people must follow the teachings of Islam as a model to improve himself and must give priority to the life hereafter.
Theory of Production Ibn Khaldun put forward the theory that economic life is heading towards the implementation of the balance between supply with demand. He said based on the production of labor and community cooperation. In fact, he thought that labor is the most important factor in the production process although other factors such as available land, labor necessary to produce the final goal.
In addition he argues that a permanent increase in the price level is necessary to maintain productivity levels. In this regard he advised the society to plan so that each field of work performed by a skilled and efficient.
However, economic growth (economic growth) and the division of labor depends on the market close. Here it can be stated that the theory of division of labor, specialization of labor, and changes made by Ibn Khaldun 100 years earlier than Adam Smith, who also produce the same theory.
Theory of Value, Money and Prices Ibn Khaldun did not clearly distinguish between the theoretical value in use (use value) with the exchange value (exchange value). But he firmly argued that the value of a product depends on the amount of labor involved in the production process. "All human effort and all of the labor force should be used for capital and profits. There is no other way for people to profit except through the use of force, said Ibn Khaldun. Distribution Theory According to Ibn Khaldun price consists of three main elements of salary or wages, profits, and taxes. All three of these elements is a return to the community. Thus, he divides the economy into three sectors namely the production, exchange, and public service.
According to Ibn Khaldun, the value or price of a good equal to the amount of labor involved in producing the goods. The price of labor is the basis for the pricing of a product and the price of labor itself is determined by supply and demand mechanisms in pasaran.Manakala profits resulting from the difference between the price obtained by the dealer selling the purchase price.However, the difference between the two price