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Tuesday, December 13, 2011
Ibn Qayyim Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (691/1292 - 751/1350) is not an unfamiliar figure among the Muslims, but many do not know the thoughts and contributions in the economic philosophy of Islam. Ibn Qayyim discusses the concept of many wealth and poverty, economic, and charity, the concept of interest, riba al-fadi and riba al-nasiiah, and market mechanisms.bn Qayyim or its original name Shams al-Din Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad bin Abu Bakr bin Sa'd, was born on 7 January 9th Safar equivalent 691H 1292M in Damascus. He died at the same 751H/1350M. He was raised in a family oriented knowledge. His father was the first teacher who taught Ibn Qayyim on the basis of Islamic knowledge, including knowledge of al-Fara'id. In fact, he has sought various fields of study with some of the prominent during adolescence. Among his teachers was the Qadi Sulayman bin Hamzah (711H/1311M), Shaykh Abu Bakr (718H/1318M), Al-Majd al-Tunisi (718 H), Abu al-Fath al-Ba'li (709H), al-Saffi Al-Hindi (715H), al-Taqi al-Sulayman, Abu Bakr ibn 'Abd al-Da'im (718H), Abu Basr bin al-Shirazi (723H),' Isa al-Mut'im (719H), Isma 'il Maktum (716H), and Ibn Taymiyyah (661 - 728 / 1263 - 1328).
Among the fields of study to learn from them is the interpretation of the Qur'an, hadith, usul al-fiqh, and jurisprudence. Ibn Qayyim determination and perseverance to learn the knowledge and the various fields, eventually made him famous as a leader in the field of fiqh, usul al-fiqh, tafsir, Arabic, theology, and traditions. In fact, according to Ibn 'Imad, Ibn Qayyim was a scholar in the field of Sufism. Ibn Qayyim is known as a prominent scholar of his time and can control the various fields of knowledge. He was a faqih who has authority in the Hanbali School. There are some scholars refer to it as mystical Sufi general.
He also has a good personality and character is unmatched by most other people in it. Ibn Kathir (774H/1373M), one of his students have stated that Ibn Qayyim strong personal worship and liked by the public at the time. Among others, Ibn Kathir writes, "I have never seen in our time, the strong man of worship such as Ibn Qayyim. When the prayers, prayers for so long. He extends his rukoo and sujood. "As a renowned scholar, Ibn Qayyim has been accompanied by many people who studied and studied various fields of knowledge with him. Among his students Ibn Kathir is famous figures in the field of hadith and history, Zayn al-Din Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (795H/1397M) a figure in the Hanbali School, and Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (852H/1449M) a prominent hadith foreign non-research lagi.Menurut Dr. 'Jad Allah Hijazi Iwad writings of Ibn Qayyim in various fields of knowledge 66.
Writing that some volumes, some thick and some are small and simple. In the field of tafsir Ibn Qayyim wrote the Book al'Tibyan al'Qur'an Iqsam fees, Tafsir al Muuawwizatayn, Tafsir Surah al'Fatihah found at the beginning of the Book of al-salikin Madarij, and others.
In the field of Hadith, Ibn Qayyim wrote books such as al-Siman Tahdhib by Abu Dawud, al-Wabilal Sayyab min al-Kalam al-Tayyib, and so on. In the field of Fiqh and Usul Fiqh he donated the books like, Ilam al-Muwaqqi'in 'an Rabb al-'Alarum, al-al-Hukmiyyah Turuq fi al-Siyysah al-Shar'iyyah, Ahkam wa al-Solah Tariqiha, Tuhfah al-Mawdud biAhkam al-Mawlud, Bayan al-Proof "An Istighna" al-Culture 'an al-Tahlil, al-Tahlil Fima Yaarum min Flip Yaaill wa al-Harir, and so on.
In the field of Sufism Ibn Qayyim writes among other things, the books of al-salikin Madarij, Rawdah. Muhibbin wa al-Mushtaqin Nuzhah ai, al-Fawâ'id li Ibn Qayyim, 'al-Sabirin Uddah Dhakhirah wa al-Shakirin, Taraq Hijratayn wa al-Bab al-Sa'adatayn, and so on.
In the field of theology and philosophy, Ibn Qayyim wrote several books such as the Shifa 'a-'Alil Masa'il fi al-Qaida' Al-Qadar wa wa wa al-al-Ta'lil wisdom, Kitab al-Ruh, Hadi al-Arwah ila Bilad al-Afrah, and Miftah dar al-Mansur Sa'adah Region wa wa al-ilm al-will of god.
In the field of history, he wrote his book Zad al-Ma'ad fi al-'Ibad khayr Puri. Ibn Qayyim also wrote al-Tibb al-Nabawi, Talbis Satan, al-Answer al-Kafi 's Five Sa'ala' An al-Dawa 'al-Shafi, and others.
bn Qayyim in his writings also have talked about several matters in respect of the Islamic economic philosophy of the Islamic concept of man (homo Islamicus) and human non-economic (non homo economicus), the concept of justice and ethical values in the economy, economic activity, cooperation and division of labor, ownership of wealth by individuals, and the role of government in the economy. In this regard, Ibn Qayyim outlines the basic Islamic belief that every human being is responsible for guiding yourself into a good servant of God and God Almighty is the source of guidance and petunjuk.Dalam economic studies, people described as being the nature, behavior, and self-serving actions themselves, greedy, covetous, and make profits as the basis for all types of economic activity. So, every person responsible for his actions and God Almighty to guide and guided towards the right path.In addition, Ibn Qayyim stressed that this life is a trial from Allah SWT Test applied to humans can be either in the form of awards or wealth given a hard life. Award to a person's wealth does not mean God love him. Similarly, the test of poverty does not mean God hate the person.Wealth owned by the people does not mean life is full with kesenangan.Ibn Qayyim also touches on the question of justice is the core of all aspects of life. According to Ibn Qayyim, justice is the key goals and objectives of Shariah. This is so because the Shariah was a justice, blessing, and wisdom. Things will convert justice in conflict with the blessing and the curse of good and evil, and the wisdom to something that is not conducive to the Shariah.
In this regard, Ibn Qayyim explains the values of ethics should be practiced by Muslims in their economic activities. Among the good ethical values is obedience to God, devotion to religion, the nature of good, honest, and true. When these values practiced in daily life, especially in the economic activity, will take away the bad values such as lying, cheating, and corruption.
He further explained that due to the nature of the mendacious will result in success is not achieved in kehidupan.Apabila a situation, economic life will be impaired as well as other aspects of life.
In other words, lies have a big impact in the lives of those big Islam.Memandangkan consequences of disobedience and social evils, Ibn Qayyim wrote that the effects of sin will lead to no good and condemned.
These sins crippled body and soul destroying human life in this world and after mati.Sifat negative properties such as lying, cheating, and exploitation and dishonesty lead to unpleasant situations in life.
There will be chaos, anxiety, instability, and frustration among the community. When all this happens, the economy will menguncup.Sebaliknya ethical values which prevail in the community will enrich the atmosphere of confidence and security in the society. At the same time, the community will cooperate in the production process and economic stability. In other words the production of goods and services will increase, and the community will be in clover.
In addition, Ibn Qayyim, organize intervention in the ownership of individual wealth if the individual using the wealth in the way that is contrary to public interest. In this regard, Ibn Qayyim has cited a piece of hadith of the Prophet's of a slave (property) which is jointly owned by several partners (you) to be released by one of his master, while the other gentlemen do not agree with the release.
In this case the Prophet s.a.w. determine a fair price and the partners are called on to receive their share. After that, the slaves were freed.
This hadith in Ibn Qayyim basis in determining the rules that a property that can not be divided and owned can be sold if one of the owners intend to menjualnya.Jelas, some aspects of the Islamic economic philosophy is described by Ibn Qayyim said is one of the principles and Islamic economic core philosophical difference with the conventional economy.