Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Alms

Alms
Meaning of Zakat from GMN
Blessings, purity, and good development. Because charity is named because it can develop the property has been removed zakat and shielding them from all the damage as Ibn Taymiyah said: Personal and property of those who give charity to be pure and clean as well as growing wealth maknawi.
Meaning of Zakat from Islamic Angle
Some specific properties that have been prescribed by Allah to give to those who are entitled to receive as was stated in the Qur'an, or it can also be interpreted with some degree of certain property given to certain groups and the pronouncement of charity is also used for the produced some of the property who is obliged to give zakat.Syar'ie Zakat charity is sometimes called in the language of the Quran and Sunnah as Allah says:
Which means: Take (some) from their wealth charity, in order that they and purify them and pray for them, surely your prayer is a relief for them. And (remember) Allah is Hearing, Knowing.(Surat at-Tawbah, verse 103).
While in the Sahih Hadith, the Prophet said to Mu'adh when he mengutuskannya to Yemen:
(Tell them that God requires them to charity (zakat) from their wealth, charity is taken from the rich among them and given to those who are poor among them). This Hadith, issued by the board of Hadith.
Zakat Law
Zakat is the third pillar of the five pillars of Islam and it is one of the banner of Islam in which Muslims can not be enforced without it. People who refused to pay zakat can be fought and those who refuse duties of charity are considered infidels.Zakat has difardukan in the second year AH and it was mentioned in the text pieces in the Scriptures the Quran in between the word of God:

Which means: And be steadfast in prayer and charity, and bow (in worship) with those who bow.(Surah al-Baqarah, Verse: 43)and the word of God:

Which means: And they (the determining part) on wealth is a recognized right.For the poor and the needy who asks is prevented (from asking).(Surah al-Ma'aarij, Verse: 24, 25).
Its rulings pertaining to Zakat and wisdom:Among the wisdom of a ruler charity is able to improve the management of society in terms of moral and material in which it could unite the community to be as if a body. In addition it can also purge the soul from stinginess and stingy nature. It is also a stronghold of peace in the Islamic economic system and the guarantor of stability and extend.
Zakat is also the cause of religious material and to get blessings of Allah as saying:
Which means: And My Mercy embraces all things, therefore I shall ordain for those who do right and give the obligatory charity.(Surat al-A'raf, Verse: 156).
Similarly, it is a requirement to seek the help of Allah as saying that says:And Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause) for Allah is Strong, Mighty. (They are) those who, if We give them power in the land, establish worship and pay the poor.
(Surah al-Hajj, verse: 40, 41).
In addition the charity is also a condition of brotherhood in Islam as saying:
Which means: So, if they repent (from sin) and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity, then they are your brethren in religion.(Surat at-Tawbah, verse: 11).
Zakat is also regarded as a believing community characteristics as the word of God:
Which means: And those who believe, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin good and forbid what is evil and establish prayer and give Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Mighty, Wise.(Surat at-Tawbah, verse: 71).
Zakat is also known as one character who mengimarahkan house of God (the mosque) as saying:
Which means: He only eligible to prosper (turn) the mosques of Allah are those who believe in Allah and the Last Day and establish worship and pay the poor due and feareth none save Allah.(Surat at-Tawbah, verse: 18).
Even the charity was also considered the characteristics of a believer who is entitled to inherit heaven paradise as saying:
Which means: And they are trying to clean the property (the property pay the obligatory charity).(Surah al-his father, Verse: 4).
While the traditions of the prophet speaks of is the charity's position as in the hadith narrated from Ibn 'Umar, may Allah, indeed Allah's Messenger: I am commanded to fight against people till they testify (acknowledge) that there is no God other than Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,establish regular prayers and pay zakat.
(Hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim).While the hadith narrated from Jarir ibn Abdullah reported:
I pledged allegiance to the Prophet to keep up regular prayer, give zakat and give advice to all Muslims.
(Hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim).Hadith narrated from Ibn 'Umar, for Allah's Messenger
Islam is built upon five things, the witness that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish regular prayers, practice regular charity, Hajj of the House for those who can afford it, and fasting during Ramadan.(Hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim).
 
Do not Zakah and the threatThose who deny the obligation of zakat, it means that person out of the religion of Islam and he be asked to repent. If he still insists not want to repent, he should be killed as an infidel unless the person has just converted to Islam in which he can be excused because of ignorance of the laws related to Islamic teachings.
In this situation the person concerned shall be taught until he really clear and well followed. As for those who refuse to pay, but still recognizes the obligation of zakat, then the person concerned is guilty for his actions, however, he was not out of the religion of Islam. Therefore, the government Zakah sentenced forced by takzir (teaching) to him.
If there is a group of people who have the strength and refused to pay zakat, but they still recognize the obligation to give zakat, the government's right to fight them until they pay their Zakat based on the hadith narrated by the pilgrims of the hadith of Abu Hurairah reported:
As soon as Mohammed died, Abu Bakr was appointed Caliph, replacing the Prophet and at that time by many Arabs who reject (an apostate).Then Umar r.a said:
How do you want to fight those who are heretics for The Messenger: I am commanded to fight those who are apostates until they acknowledge that there is no god but God, if they reflect the admission, the lives and property protected from me except when the person doing action that is punishable and the calculation of the rest with AllahThus Abu Bakr r.a said:
By Allah, I will continue to fight those who differentiate between prayer with the charity because charity is an obligation against the property. By Allah, if they still refuse to pay even a young goat that has not reached the age of one year when they had to pay to the Prophet, I will be fighting them for it.Then Umar r.a said:
By Allah, Allah made Abu Bakr to fight them and I also believe that such action is correct.
While in another hadith, also narrated from Abu Hurairah reported:
S.a.w Prophet said:
No one has a gold and silver are not paid zakat, except in the Day of Judgement he will be provided with a sheet or sheets (iron), made from the fire and then heated in hell fire then rubbed into the body, forehead and back. Every time the cold plate, it is heated again and then rubbed him continuously at a time in which the same duration as 50 thousand years until the completion decided the fate of mankind. At that time everyone can see their fate (explain) whether he would be to heaven or to hell.
(Hadith narrated by Imam Muslim).
In another hadith narrated from Abdullah bin Mas'ud, the Prophet he said: No one among the slaves who do not pay zakat on the Day of Judgement except the property will be shown to him as a very large snake and very venomous and twist its neck Then he saw us read verses of the Quran asserts the following:
Which means: And do not let those who covetously withhold of which Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty think that it is good for them. In fact it is worse for them. They will dikalongkan (tortured) by what they were greedy on the Day of Judgement.(Surah Aal e Imran, Verse: 180).
Sahih Hadith, narrated by Imam Nasaie, Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Majah, and also the hadith narration taken from the narration of Ibn Majah. In a hadith narrated from Ali Another reported:
Allah's curse (cursed) the person who took usury, the lender laptops, laptop witness, author laptops, tattoo artist, who asked to be drawn tattoos, people who refused to pay zakat, taking wages of Chinese blind and blind husband who hired Chinese.

(Hasan Hadith, narrated by Imam Ahmad and Nasaie).Terms of Zakat
Zakat is compulsory for certain types of property to be placed several conditions that must be met. Conditions have been created to assist taxpayers in order to pay zakat charity wealth to be happy until the real goal will be achieved, sliding charity.
Such conditions are as follows:Properly owned.
What is perfect is owned by the property owner is free to use property owned by him without the intervention of others. This is required because the charity was originally meant to own and given to the person entitled to receive, and this situation can not be implemented unless the property was owned by the perfect property. Therefore not subject to zakat on property that are outside the authority of the property owner or master of nothing and not known where the place or the inability to detect the master.

It has been reported by several companions: Not subject to zakat on property owners outside the authority, or ring the dowry is not paid because a woman can not use it, not subject to Zakah on debts that can not be paid, but when already in hand, then it is mandatory Zakah is to count only one year of payment or dowry even though the debt has been in the hands of another person or a husband for many years, as well as debt against the person who can not afford to pay.
Actual development or in accordance with the assessment.The point is that the property is rich in natural breeding or assessable. What is a natural flourish like the property increases in a manner born, developed and marketed. What is a property assessment is the potential for increases such as gold, silver and money for this kind of property can increase its value by means traded, let it be counted. As for fixed assets or property not owned or assessment grow naturally it is exempted from Zakah.
Nisab.
Nisab is the rate of property which has been determined by Islamic law, where a property is not subject to zakat if less than a pre-determined rate. Among the obligatory zakat conditions on the property is reached nisab Zakah.Conditions imposed on cash, gold, silver, business goods and animals. As has been mentioned in the Prophet's hadith that says: No Zakah is due on gold, but when up to 20 dinars (1 dinar = 4.25 grams, so the 20 dinar = 85 grams) when it has reached 20 Dinar Dinar Zakat is one-half. That silver is not liable to Zakah except when the 200 Dirham (1 Dirham = 2975 grams, so 200 Dirham = 595 grams) in which Zakat is 5 dirhams. Nisab gold is 20 mithqal = 85 grams of pure gold, while silver nisab is the 200 Dirham = 595 grams of pure silver.
Nisab charity business items is equal to the charity which is 85 grams of gold pure gold, while the goods of other charity was determined nisabnya. Included are goods are goods that have been charity nisab or more, whereas less than one nisab then it is not subject to zakat. Nisab perfection can be seen at the beginning and end of the haul, where the deficiency and excess of the initial and final haul will not affect nisab.
Combined benefits or results obtained from the end of Zakah haul, according pandapat Imam Hanafi and Maliki schools where this method is much easier to put into practice because it is agreed by the majority of Islamic jurists.
The effect of mixing in the Compulsory Nisab and Rates ReleasedProperty is a mixture of property owned by several people and then combined as if owned by the same person, because from the perspective of the nature and condition.
Preservation of such a place, a place to drink and a barn, including in terms of security, management, financing of industrial property.

It was originally used only on the basis of mixed cattle, but there are some other schools using this method apart from such animals to crops, fruit and money.
When this method is applied to the property industry, we see as if the property is owned by one, either in terms of counts and rates nisab exempted from Zakah.For example:
We find that nisab animals owned by three people and each person has a total of 15 sheep, when mixed into 45 pieces, in which the amount has exceeded the amount of charity imposed nisab of 40 sheep, it must be counted a goat, will but if calculated on every owner nisabnya surely will not reach and can not be counted.More than basic needs.
The goods have been owned as fundamental as the need to use the house for shelter, tools used, machines, vehicles such as motor cars and household items are not subject to zakat, as well as money saved to pay debt (to be described later) is not compulsory charity, because the debtor is Independent of the property is ditanganya to defend itself from further into debt and humiliation. Therefore, it is necessary or desirable property is not compulsory charity.
 
Haul.
Haul is over the property a Kamariah nisab in 12 months (months AH). But if there are difficulties to determine the month due to migration counts bound by the AD, it can be calculated in accordance with the AD with the addition of mandatory rate produced ranging from 2.5% to the year 2577 AD as the number of days over the year Hijri.
Zakat is not required to haul the crops and fruits, for the word of Allah, which means:Rescue charity during the day right of harvest.(Surah al-An'am, verse: 141),
The same applies to the charity of minerals and the property is planted in a land where not required to haul.
 
Prevent the multiplication of the charity.When a property has been removed then zakat is changing the form of property, such agricultural produce has been removed charity and agricultural produce is sold with a price, or goats that have been removed charity after nisab then sell the goats for a specified price, the property derived from the sale of property be counted as available at the end of the haul should not be counted in the haul so doubling does not occur in the payment of tithes on one type of property. As the Prophet saw in hadis which means:
There is no gain in zakat.(Narrated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim).General property and welfare waqaf property:Public property is exempted from Zakah because the property is owned by the public and among them are poor. In this case there is no specific property that not even government agencies to take charity from his own to give to himself.

 
The same is true of the diwaqafkan waqaf property for public interest as to the poor, the mosques, orphans and others on the road good and general welfare. This is because the original owner of property has been mewakafkannya to the public interest that is not owned by a particular set. Similarly, the association property, social welfare foundations are not subject to zakat because the assets belong to a group of poor people who only extended to those in need as well as the property does not belong to a person or certain people.
The types of Zakat
Cash Zakat (gold, silver and coins):Definition of Cash:
What is the cash is all kinds of paper and metal currency, whether the currency used in the state who want to be counted, or other domestic currency.
Cash Obligations Zakah:Duty of zakat money has been set out in the Quran, Hadith and consensus of scholars. As for the verses which speak of the matter is the Word of God that means:
"And (remember) those who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah: announce unto them a (reward) Penalty Grievous. (Is) on the day of burning gold and silver (wealth) in theHell, then crucified with their foreheads and their sides, and behind them (and said): This is what you hoarded for yourselves, so taste (the punishment of) what you store it. "(Surat at-Tawbah, Verse: 34-35).
While the resolution mentioned in the hadith is the saying of the Prophet as:Property which has been paid zakat is no longer called the treasure (kanzun).
(Hadith narrated by the Judge and confirmed by Dhahabi).Similarly, the Prophet said s.a.w:
No one has a gold and silver are not paid zakat, except in the Day of Judgement he will be provided with a sheet or sheets (iron), made from the fire and then heated in hell fire then rubbed into the body, forehead and back.(Hadith narrated by Imam Muslim).
Islamic scholars in all times have agreed on the obligation to give zakat money (gold and silver) and it also applied to all other currencies because it was decided that it also uses the same law with gold and silver. Institutions of Islamic Jurisprudence in Jeddah has decided on the no. 9, item 3 which reads as follows: (Notes are also considered to be cash rich with the value (purchasing power) and it fully uses the same Islamic law as prescribed for the gold and silver, such as usury laws, charity, selling greetings and so on).Zakat Nisab Cash:
Wealth who want to be counted should be sufficient nisab the minimum rate set by the Islamic charity which is not removed from the property must be less than that rate, but if the property was owned enough rate, it must be counted.Nisab gold and golden currency is 20 misqal equivalent to 85 grams of pure gold. (1 misqal = 25.4 grams).
While nisab silver and silver currency is 200 dirhams was equivalent to 595 grams of pure silver. (1 dirham = 2975 grams).
Islamic Research Institute (in the second muktamarnya) has outlined the resolution which reads as follows: (Assessment nisab charity wealth of metal currency (coins), currency notes, bank notes (such as check, money order, etc.) and commodity business (business items) is calculated based on the value of gold.

 
Each property of the wealth that has reached the rate of the 20 misqal gold, it shall be counted as the value of gold is more stable compared with other wealth).To find the current market price of a gold misqal, it should be referred to the decision made by the experts in this field.
Some Islamic economic research using other ground in selecting nisab as a measure to assess the gold nisab charity cash.
Their reasoning was that because gold is a valuable mineral and is always in the security (even in small amounts) for paper money issued by a country based on the value of gold but this is the assessed value of paper money to gold seems to be the international currency in addition to being basic guidelines to evaluate the global currency and the currency is also referred to sometimes even price changes from time to time according to changes in market prices.

According to the opinion of the Hanafi, the value of gold can be combined with the silver for the silver nisab have enough (just not the thing). Thus the value of gold have to be calculated as well as the ratio (rate) is compared with nisabnya gold and silver prices are calculated are available. When the value of both adequate nisab, it shall be counted as meaning "rich" have been proven to have a value of nisab.

 
In addition the value of the commodity business can also be combined with existing gold and silver to make up nisab. Nisab wealth of cash, currency notes and other coins (coins) are calculated based on the gold at a rate equal to the value of 85 grams of pure gold - gold that is in the form of gold nuggets (999) - according to the price on the day of the compulsory nisabcharity in the state where there is property of zakat payers.As for gold, which is not true, weight scales should be reduced at the rate of the weight of the mixture is not of the nature of gold.
For example, in 18 carat gold, weight balance shall be reduced by a quarter and half of it in the form of six twenty-fourth (1 / 4 = 6 / 24) and the remainder shall be counted.
While in 21 carat gold, weight balance shall be reduced by one-eighth and half of it in the form of three twenty-four (3 / 24 = 1 / 8) and the remainder shall be counted.Similarly, the method of calculation that is not pure silver.
 
Extraction conditions prescribed Zakat Gold, silver and coins:
Zakat money, gold and silver are only required when the meet the conditions required to give alms as already described.Zakat rate Gold, Silver and Currency Must Issued:
Rates of compulsory charity out of gold, silver and currency is about 1 / 40 (2.5%).How To Calculate The Zakat Gold and Silver in the Form of Cash Value Points:
If taxpayers want to give zakat zakat charity gold or silver that required him to use the cash, the value must be paid is the value derived from the results of calculations made zakat of gold and silver. For example: 25 grams of gold (mandatory charity rate issued) multiplied by the price of one gram of gold. We estimate the price is at (4 Dinar), after that we will find the results of the obligatory zakat issued in the form of currency.

 
The process of this calculation: The charity = 25 grams of gold x 4 dinars (the price of a gram) = 100 dinar.Zakat Jewelry, Gold and Silver PropertyWomen's jewelry provided is for the use (application) is not required personally only be counted as long as it does not exceed the rate of custom clothing for women who have a social status equivalent.

 
As for jewelry for more than the normal rates apply, he must be counted as the same steps as in (included in the meaning) save and accumulate wealth. Similarly, a woman must give zakat jewelry that is not recycled due to the model that is outdated or the like.
Zakah for both jewelry is calculated based on weight of pure gold and silver, and it is not measured by the price, do not count with a higher price due to the design and workmanship and does not count the price of precious stones and tied with additional accessories other than gold and silver are beautified.
This situation differs from gold and silver are still in the hands of dealers because zakat is calculated based on the total value of the enterprise, including jewelry with precious stones available.
Gold and Silver jewelry worn Sacred Obligation of Zakah Issued
Gold jewelry to be worn but must be owned by men be counted as gold rings or watches, but if he is wearing a silver ring, it is exempted from Zakah because silver is lawful for men. Similarly, women wearing men's jewelry when jewelry is forbidden for them, it must be counted.
In conclusion, all gold and silver jewelry to be worn even when it has been exempted from Zakah nisab nisab whether there are enough by themselves, or simply by combining with other property. Explanation of gold and silver nisab already explained before. On top of that cash should also be combined with gold and silver to calculate nisab, as well as commercial commodities should be combined with other items.Rate of gold and silver ornaments charity which must be issued also by 2.5% or 1 / 40.Zakah for Bonds
In Islamic Law Management Using the Bond Purchase
Bonds (debt or loan declaration evidence) is part of the loan granted to the company or party that issued it. Company or the applicable specific benefit of the bond when it is published. This benefit is not linked to profits or losses of the company and must be explained within the time frame specified. The bonds have a nominal price (the price balance) the original price when it is published for the first time and market prices tailored to the position of supply and demand.Law dealing with the bond sale was illegal according to Islamic law as it contains the banned usury interest, as well as it is included in the category of selling debt to other people (not related) and trading is not allowed.How to Pay Zakah for Bonds
While dealing with the bond sale was banned because it contains banned usury interest, bond owners still required to pay zakat from the original value (nominal value of bonds) in each year owned by combining capital appreciation bonds with other property in a matter of nisab and haul , then pay as much as 1 / 40 or 2.5% of the totaltotal does not include benefits produced laptop. Benefits of the banned usury shall be expended towards good and public interest other than the construction of mosques, printing the Qur'an and so on.
Interest expense request in this respect is to prevent themselves from property that is unlawful, it also can not be counted as assets that must be counted, can not be spent for the benefit of themselves, their children and families, but preferably it is attributed to those truly desperate as those suffering from famine, disaster, natural disasters and so on.
Zakat Stock
In Islamic Law Management Using Stock Purchase
Stock is part of the capital of a company will experience gains and losses are appropriate according to the company's profits and losses. Shareholder is one of the partners in a company or in other words he is the owner of the wealth of the company according to the ratio of shares compared to the total shares of the company and the shareholder is entitled to sell shares whenever he wanted.
Shares have a fixed nominal price when first released and it also has a market price is determined based on the supply and demand on the stock exchange where the shares outstanding.
Lawful or illegal position of a stock is punished according to economic activities carried out by companies that have been given shares. As such, illegal to give shares to a company and its illegal features of the company when the policy is to operate and carry on the business of illegal goods such as laptops and creating and implementing business selling alcohol or illegal practice systems such as the sale of goods by showing examplessales and gharar (uncertainty sale price, sale of goods, time and ability to deliver it).
How to pay Zakat on Shares
If the company were to pay zakat shares as described in the charity section of the company, shareholders are no longer required to give alms to prevent it happening stock doubling in zakat (charity producing two times).As to when the company did not release Zakat, shareholders must pay zakat in a manner as follows:
Owners to take stock of its shares for trading in its shares menjualbelikan, then the rate that must be removed charity is about 1 / 40 or 2.5% of the market prices valid on the day of Zakah (haul time) such other business commodity.If the shareholder takes its just to get the benefits of the annual profits of these shares, the manner of payment of zakat are as follows:
If he was able to find out (whether by the company issuing shares or by other parties) the rates determined for each share of the total assets of the company that must be counted, he is obligated to pay the zakat of 1 / 40 or 2.5% of the value the shares.
If he can not know, he should combine with a rich dividend is another in a matter of nisab haul and then pay the zakat of 1 / 40 or 2.5%, and thus he is free from all liability.Zakat Debt
Debt is the sum of money is borrowed to others and it must be counted if it can probably be explained by the borrower. New debt combined with a cash balance of other wealth in a matter of nisabnya. While the debt to be paid to others by people who want to give alms, they are not counted as property that should be counted as follows:
Debt can prevent zakat obligations of the debtor suitable according to the value of the debt when the debt was in his care before it is time to pay zakat, and when people want to give alms do not have other assets to pay its debts other than Zakah in excess of basic needs, he may explain his debt from the assets of the charity.If the debtor who want to give zakat has a wide range of property assets in excess of charity, he shall use one of the types of property to settle debts and then he give alms to the remaining property of another charity. This situation is more advantageous for those who are eligible to receive charity.
Long-term debts (debt outstanding) relating to accommodation and other similar debts to finance fixed assets is not compulsory charity, and it is usually described gradually in the long run. Such debt may only be appropriate to reduce the property values ​​of charity annual installments shall be payable in that year only and the person (the debtor) is required to give alms to the remaining property still in his hand, if it was still nisab or more than nisab.
Properties that must be counted will be reduced by all the debts that finance business dealings when the debtor does not have the capital owned (fixed assets) over fundamental needs.
Properties that must be counted will be reduced by investment debts to finance manufacturing (exploitation) when the debtor does not have the capital owned (fixed assets) over fundamental needs that can be used to settle these debts. If he has assets, the asset is to be used to pay the debt. As he settled the debt with the assets, properties that must be counted not have to be reduced by debt.If the assets are not sufficient to pay the debt, then the properties that must be counted will be reduced by the value of the remaining debt (taken from real charity to settle the outstanding balance) and if the debt is long-term investment debt (debt outstanding), Zakah will be only to clarify the annual installments shall be payable in that year alone.

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